With lessons 1-16 of the Pimsleur Japanese I course we should be able to understand most of the following clips from ‘Shigatsu wa kimi no uso” (Your lie in April).
San and other honorifics
The honorific that we use when addressing a person says what we think of our relationship with this person. In the clip below, from ‘Your lie in April’ – Ep. 18, a boy addresses the teacher of a girl using the teacher’s name, Arima Kousei, without using the honorific ‘sensei’ (teacher), and the girl goes into a rage at the insult.
The default honorific, ‘san’, is a neutral Mr., Mrs., Miss, or Ms., but there are many other ways to refer to someone:
- [last name] 様, さま – sama – extremely formal and respectful
- [last name] 殿, どの – dono – formal and respectful, used specially in business and official letters
- [last name] 先生, せんせい – sensei – respectful way to address teachers, and physicians; it’s pronounced ‘sensee’, not ‘sensei’
- [last name] さん – san – formal and respectful way to address anyone
- [last/first name] ちゃま – chama – casual, combines ‘sama’ and ‘chan’, i.e., combines respect and affection
- [last/first name] 君, くん – kun – casual, same age or younger; it is the opposite of chan, i.e, it’s most commonly used for males, but it can be used for females, e.g., in ‘Fruits Basket’, Shigure addresses Touru, a girl, as ‘Touru-kun’. ‘kimi’ (you) and ‘kun’ have the same kanji
- [last/first name] ちゃん – chan – casual, usually for same age or younger; it’s most commonly used for females, but it can be used for males, e.g., Japanese people affectionally refer to Arnold Schwarzenegger as ‘Shuwa-chan’.
- [last/first name] ちん – chin – casual, fairly personal and endearing, used by and for females, e.g., in ‘Kimi ni todoke’, Chizuru calls Ayane (her best friend) ‘Yano-chin’.
- [last/first name] っちい – cchi – casual, fairly personal and endearing, used by and for females, e.g., in ‘Tsuki ga kirei’, all of Akane’s girl friends call her ‘Akanecchi’.
- [last name] – casual, used with close friends
- [first name] – very intimate, used by family and childhood friends
There are many other honorifics. For example, in ‘My Hero Academy’, All-Might addresses his teen-age students as ‘shounen’ and ‘shoujo’ (Young man, Young woman), e.g., ‘Midoriya shounen’; this is similar to Capt. Picard, in the Star Trek series, addressing Wesley as ‘Young Wesley Crusher’.
In general, been able to call someone with a more intimate honorific (or without one) is a sign of the evolution and closeness of the relationship. Still, regardless of the closeness, often an honorific remains, not as a mark of distance but of respect, e.g., I had an American acquaintance who had been married to a Japanese lady for about 10-12 years, who still referred to her (at least in public) as ‘Miki-san’.
mata ashita, moshi-moshi Ep.1
Then… see you tomorrow.
hum… see ya. hello? (on the phone)
sore-dewa. mata ashita.
aa. mata ashita. moshi-moshi?
ja. mata ashita.
aa. mata. moshi-moshi?
- In this context, ‘sore-dewa’, ‘sore-ja’, ‘dewa’, and ‘ja’ are all interchangeable.
ja, mata, ashita Ep.6
Eng: See ya…
hum… See you tomorrow
hum… again tomorrow
hai. mata ashita.
はい。 また あした。
un… mata ashita.
うん… また あした。
kore, ga, no Ep.8
Eng: This is Aiza’s Chopin.
lit: This! This is Aiza’s Chopin.
kore ga aiza kun no shopan desu.
これが あいざ くんの ショパン です。
kore ga aiza no shopan.
これが あいざの ショパン。
- the ‘ga’ particle emphasizes what comes before it, while ‘wa’ emphasizes what comes after it.
watashi/boku/ore, wo, te form Ep.13
Eng: look at me! (4 times)
watashi wo mite kudasai (4 times)
わたしを みて ください。
ore wo miro!
watashi wo miro!
watashi wo miro!
boku wo miro!
- ‘boku’ and ‘ore’ are casual forms of ‘watashi’; ‘boku’ has a connotation of being respectful, while ‘ore’ has one being manly, tough, and confident.
- ‘mite’ is the imperative of ‘miru’ (to look); ‘miro’ is used when you are angry
- we mark with を the direct objects of verbs, and with が the direct objects of adjectives.
- the particle を is most often pronounced ‘o’, in spite that it is written as ‘wo’.
wa, ni, arimasen Ep.16
Eng: My bag is not at school
lit: The bag? It does not exist at the school
kaban wa gakkou ni arimasen.
カバンは がっこうに ありません。
kaban, gakkou ni nai
- Kawori is apologizing so she speaks formally to Kousei
- ‘kaban’ is bag or briefcase
- ‘gakkou’ is school
desu/da, watashi/boku Ep.16
Eng: I’m a fool.
Ah, it’s snow.
lit: Me? I’m a fool.
Ah, it’s snow!
watashi wa baka desu. aa, yuki desu!
わたしは ばかです。ああ、ゆき です。
boku wa baka da. aa, yuki da!
ぼくは ばかだ。ああ、ゆき だ。
- ‘boku’ is a casual form of ‘watashi’
- ‘kaba’ is ‘fool’, or ‘idiot’
- ‘da’ is the casual form of ‘desu’
- ‘yuki’ is ‘snow’