Japanese I-15

Kanjis: 1st grade + JLPT N5; Additional kanjis for lessons 9-16:

はん – meal ひる – noon 明日 あした – tomorrow
ばん – evening つぎ – next

Conversation transcript


Instructions
listen to the following conversation, please
tsugi no kaiwa wo kiite kudasai
つぎの かいわを きいて ください
次の会話を聞いて下さい


listen again, please
mou ichido kiite kudasai
もう いちど きいて ください。
もういちど聞いて下さい。


Mr. Mori and Ms. Tanaka are at a restaurant.


English
1: Mr. Mori; 2: Ms. Tanaka

2: Ms. Tanaka, are you having sushi?
1: I’m sorry, I can’t eat sushi.
    But, I can drink wine.
2: I see…
    I too cannot eat sushi.
1: You neither?
2: Yes.
    And also I don’t drink wine at all.
1: Well, then…
    are you ok with shabu-shabu and beer?
2: Yes, those are good!


romaji
1: mori shi; 2: tanaka fujin

2: tanaka san, o-sushi wo tabe-masu ka?
1: sumi-masen, sushi wa tabe-rare-masen.
    demo, watashi wa wine ga nome-masu.
2: sou desu ka…
    watashi mo sushi ga tabe-rare-masen.
1: mori san mo?
2: ee.
    soshite, wine mo zen-zen nomi-masen.
1: ja…
    shabu-shabu to biiru ga ii desu ka?
2: ee, ii desu ne!



kana
1: もり し; 2: たなか ふじん

2: たなか さん、おすしを たべますか?
1: すみません、すしは たべられません。
    でも、わたしは ワインが のめます。
2: そう ですか…
    わたしも すしが たべられません。
1: もり さんも?
2: ええ。
    そして、ワインも ぜんぜん のみません。
1: じゃあ…
    しゃぶしゃぶと ビールが いい ですか?
2: ええ、いい ですね!


kanji (show me)
1: 森師; 2: 田中夫人

2: 田中さん、おすしを食べますか?
1: すみません、すしは食べられません。
    でも、私はワインが飲めます。
2: そうですか…
    私もすしが食べられません。
1: 森さんも?
2: ええ。
    そして、ワインもぜんぜん飲みません。
1: じゃあ…
    しゃぶしゃぶとビールがいいですか?
2: ええ、いいですね!


Vocabulary


English
none at all
sushi

can eat
can buy

I’m going out
For me

to go
masu (formal)
dict (casual)
-te (imperative)

to come
masu (formal)
dict (casual)
-te (imperative)


romaji
zen-zen
sushi

tabe-rare-masu
kae-masu

itte ki-masu
watashi ni

 
iki-masu
iku
itte

 
ki-masu
kuru
kite


kana
ぜんぜん
すし

たべられます
かえます

いってきます
わたしに

 
いきます
いく
いって

 
きます
きる
きて


kanji
 
 

食べられます
買えます

行って来ます
私に

 
行きます
行く
行って

 
来ます
来る
来て


  • The potential form, e.g., ‘kai-masu → kae-masu’, plays the role of the English auxiliary verb ‘can’, e.g., ‘buy → can buy’.

Sample sentences

Eng: how many are two and two?
lit: two with two, how much is it?


formal
ni to ni de ikura desu ka?

にと にで いくら ですか。

二と二でいくらですか。

casual
ni to ni de ikura?

にと にで いくら?

二と二でいくら?



Eng: Now you are talking to your friend Yoko.
lit: Now you are conversing with your friend Yoko.

This is the same ‘with’ (to) that we would use in ‘eating with me’ (watashi to tabe-masu):


formal
ima youko san to hanashi-masu.

いま ようこさんと はなします。

今ようこさんと話します。

casual
ima youko chan to hanasu.

いま ようこちゃんと はなす。

今ようこちゃんと話す。



Comments

The following comments explain some of the grammar in more detail.

Particles

he – へ

Although this particle is written as ‘he’, it is pronounced ‘e’. It indicates a direction of motion, so we can translate it as ‘to’, ‘towards’ or ‘in the direction of’:


English
where to?
to my place
to the hotel
to Shinjuku


romaji
doko he?
watashi no tokoro he
hoteru he
shinjuku he


to – と

‘to’ means ‘and’ in an exhaustive list:


English
two and two

beer and sake and cola (and nothing else)
beer and sake and cola (and other similar)


romaji
ni to ni

biiru to o-sake to koura
biiru ya o-sake ya koura


Above, a waiter might be telling us that all they have left is ‘beer, sake, and cola’, so s/he’d separate the items with ‘to’, but if s/he is just giving examples of what they have, then s/he’d separate them with ‘ya’.

ni/niwa/nimo – に・には・にも

In this lesson ‘ni’ works as ‘for’:


For me.
For me?
As for me?
For me too.
For me too?


watashi ni
watashi ni?
watashi ni wa?
watashi ni mo
watashi ni mo?


わたし.
わたし
わたしは?
わたし
わたしも?




は?

も?


Verbs

kuru – くる, 来る

We saw ‘suru’ (to do), one of the two Japanese irregular verbs, in lesson 8; the other irregular verb is ‘kuru’ (to come):


non-past


formal
ki-masu


casual
kuru


For example:


English
Ms. Tanaka? He comes to Japan today.
formal
casual


romaji

tanaka san wa kyou nihon ni ki-masu.
tanaka san kyou nihon ni kuru.


potential

The potential form plays the role of the English auxiliary verb ‘can’, to say things like ‘I can eat’. There is a description of how to derive the potential form from the dictionary form in the summary.

The potential form of every verb is a -ru verb, i.e., a group 2 verb. Thus, we can find the -masu form of any potential form treating it as a -ru verb.


verb group
1
2
 

2
2
 

3
2
 

3
2
 


English
I drink
I can drink
I cannot drink

I eat
I can eat
I cannot eat

I do
I can do
I cannot do

I come
I can come
I cannot come


dict.
nomu
nome-ru
nome-nai

taberu
tabe-rare-ru
tebe-rare-nai

suru
deki-ru
deki-nai

kuru
ko-rare-ru
ko-rare-nai


formal
 
nome-masu
nome-masen

 
tabe-rare-masu
tebe-rare-masen

 
deki-masu
deki-masen

 
ko-rare-masu
ko-rare-masen


Many people drop the ‘ra’ in the -rare-ru/-rare-masu terminations.

For example:


English
I can buy.
I can’t buy.

I can eat
I cannot eat


casual
kae-ru
kae-nai

tabe-(ra)re-ru
tabe-(ra)re-nai


formal
kae-masu
kae-masen

tabe-(ra)re-masu
tabe-(ra)re-masen


Potential forms do not have a direct object, so they do not take the を particle; instead they take が, or は when we need contrast:


English
sake! I can buy it.
sake? I can buy it. (I can’t buy other things)

sushi! I can eat it.
sushi? I can eat it. (I cannot eat other things)


romaji
o-sake ga kae-masu
o-sake wa kae-masu

sushi ga tabe-rare-masu
sushi wa tabe-rare-masu


Expressions

itte ki-masu – いってきます

We say ‘itte ki-masu’ when we are leaving and have the intention of coming back. This expression is formed by two separate complete sentences: ‘itte’ and ‘ki-masu’. The first sentence, ‘itte’, is the -te form of the verb ‘iku’ (to go); the second sentence, ‘ki-masu’, is the -masu form of the verb ‘kuru’ (to come).

As we pointed out in Lesson 10, the -te form is used to join sentences. The verb of each of the joined sentences must be in -te form, which then changes to the form of the verb in the final sentence:


nonde, tabete, kiite, hanashi-masu.
nonde, tabete, kiite, hanashi-mashita.


I drink, eat, listen, and speak.
I drank, ate, listened, and spoke.


In the first sentence we joined ‘nomi-masu, tabe-masu, kiki-masu, and hanashi-masu’, while in the second one, we joined ‘nomi-mashita, tabe-mashita, kiki-mashita, and hanashi-mashita’.

Now, back to ‘itte ki-masu’. This is as if we were joining ‘iki-masu and ki-masu’, i.e., ‘I’m going and I’m coming’, meaning ‘I’m leaving but I’ll be back’.

The correct response to ‘itte ki-masu’ is ‘itte rasshai’ (いってらっしゃい), which translates to ‘go and come’, but it’s understood to mean ‘have a good day’, or ‘take care’.

A very casual form of ‘itte ki-masu’ would be ‘itte kuru ne!’, which essentially means ‘ok, I’m off!’.