Verbs, adverbs and adjectives

verbs

# kanji kun-yomi on-yomi
35 はい 入る enter, go in にゅうがく 入学 enrollment
入る entering
36 出る leave, get out がいしゅつ がい出 outing
出す to take out
37 やす 休すむ to rest きゅう 休か holiday
38 立つ to stand up りっ 立ぱ splendid
39 見る to see, to watch けんぶつ 見ぶつ sightseeing
40 きる 生きる to live, to exist せんせい 先生 teacher
まれる 生まれる to be born たんじょう たん生日 birthday
なま raw, uncooked


adjectives

# kanji kun-yomi on-yomi
41 はや 早い early; fast そうぞう 早々 as soon as…
42 ただしい 正しい correct せい logical True
まさ 正に exactly あほう 生が ginger
43 おおきい 大きい big だいがく 大学 University
とな 大人 adult たいしかん 大しかん embassy
44 ちいさい 小さい small しょうがっこう 重学校 Elem. school
ねこ 小ねこ kitty
がわ 小川 stream

colors

# kanji kun-yomi on-yomi
45 しろ white はくじん 白人 caucasian
46 あか red せきじゅうじ 赤十字 The Red Cross
47 あお blue せいねん 青年 young man

comments:

  • 面白い (おもしろい, interesting) comes from 面 (おも, face, mask), and 白い (しろい, white), because when we see something interesting, our faces ‘brighten’ or ‘light up’.
  • There are two versions of あお (blue). 靑 (lower portion is 円) is the official entry in the Kangxi dictionary, while 青 (lower portion is 月) is officially allowed in personal names. Both versions are used in Japan. (wikipedia)

あか (red), き (yellow), and あお (blue)

The Japanese color あお (blue) covers more colors than our blue. For example, in Japan the traffic lights are red, yellow, and either green or blue, but regardless of whether it is green or blue, Japanese refer to it as あお. The grass and the sea are also あお [Taekim]. The name for the color green is みどり, though, so a frog would be みどり, not あお, but a green traffic light would be あお, not みどり.

The ‘Rising Sun” flag

On the token of colors, in many countries we draw the sun yellow, but in Japan the sun is drawn red; the national flag symbolizes this: Japan is the country of the ‘Rising Sun’, and its flag is commonly known as the 日のまる (ひのまる), i.e., The circle of the sun.

time

# kanji kun-yomi on-yomi
48 ゆう evening いっせき 一夕 one evening
49 とし year さんねん 三年 three years
50 さき previous, former せんせい 先生 teacher

せんせい (teacher) is written ‘先生’, meaning ‘before in life’. This is the same 先 of 先週 (せんしゅう, week before), 先月 (せんげつ, month before), and the ubiquitous 先輩 (せんぱい, someone older or with a higher rank than me) that shows up in every anime that takes place at a school.

space

# kanji kun-yomi on-yomi
51 うえ above, up, top じょう 上手 skilled
げる 上げる to raise
のぼ 上る to ascend/climb
52 した below, down, bottom てつ ち下てつ subway
くださる 下さる kindly do for me 下た wooden shoe
りる 下りる to descend/go down
53 なか inside, center, middle ちゅうがく 中学 middle school
うち inside, interior
54 みぎ right せつ 右せつ right turn
ゆう 左右 left and right
55 ひあり left ゆう 左右 left and right

Vocabulary

These are basic words that use only kanken-10 kanjis:


kanji
入る
入る

入れる
入口

出る
出かける

出す
出きる

出口
出入り口

休む
休み

見る
見える
見せる

学生
りゅう学生
生と

大きな
小さな

おも白い
赤ちゃん

夕べ
先月

お中


kana
はいる
いる

いれる
いりぐち

でる
でかける

だす
できる

でぐち
でいりぐち

やすむ
やすみ

みる
みえる
みせる

がくせい
りゅうがくせい
せいと

おおきな
ちいさな

おもしろい
あかちゃん

ゆうべ
先月

おなか


English
to enter, to go in
entering

put in, insert
entrance (in mouth)

to leave, to exit
to go out on an excursion

to take out
to be able

exit (out mouth)
entrance and exit

to rest
rest, break, vacation

to see, to watch
to be in sight, to appear
to show, to display

student (study life)
overseas student
pupil

big, large, great
small, little, tiny

interesting (face bright)
baby (red chan)

yesterday evening
previous month

belly (respectable middle)