here, by me
there, by you
way over there
- ‘soko’ (there, near you) is not in lesson 4, but it’s part of the [ko/so/a/do]-ko family, so it makes sense to bring it up because the other words of the family are used in this lesson.
Eng: You speak well.
lit: You? You speak with skill.
anata wa jouzu-ni hanashi-masu.
あなたは じょうずに はなします。
kimi wa jouzu-ni hanasu.
きみは じょうずに はなす。
‘kimi’ is a casual form of ‘anata’.
Eng: Do you know where is a good restaurant?
lit: Where? A good restaurant? Do you know?
doko ka i-i resutoran wa shite imasu ka?
どこか いい レストランは して いますか？
The following comments explain some of the grammar in more detail.
Prefixes and suffixes
To turn na-adjectives into adverbs, we replace the -na with -ni:
person with skill
to speak with skill (skillfully)
In summary, we use ‘-na’ when we modify a noun, and ‘-ni’ when we modify a verb. Both the na-adjective terminations ‘-na’ and ‘-ni’ mean ‘with’, but in English we most often say ‘skillfully’ instead of ‘with skill’, so we can think of ‘-ni’ as the Japanese version of ‘-ly’:
We use these prefixes to describe the distances among the speaker, the listener, and the subject of the conversation. In English, ‘there’ is a location away from the speaker, but we do not distinguish whether it is close to the listener or not; Japanese makes this distinction: the prefix ‘so-‘ indicates that the location is away from the speaker, but close to the listener, while the prefix ‘a-‘ indicates that the location is away from both the speaker and the listener.
this, near me
that, near you
that, far away
‘koko’, ‘soko’, ‘asoko’, and ‘doko’ is a ko/so/a/do family of words that refers to locations.
here, near me
there, near you
way over there
Same as in English, there are many ways to say ‘yes’ in Japanese, depending of what we are saying and to whom we are talking to:
Yes, Sir/Madam! right away! Aye-aye!
Yes, aye, here! (Present!)
Yes, yeah, yeap, sure
Yeeesss… (coming…, I heard you)