Japanese I-25

Vocabulary


English
because
! (for sure!)
already; no longer

store
department store

late; slow

why?
you’re welcome

to do (humble)
masu (formal)
dict (casual)
-te (imperative)

to see
masu (formal)
dict (casual)
-te (imperative)

to be open
masu (formal)
dict (casual)
-te (imperative)

to be closed
masu (formal)
dict (casual)
-te (imperative)


romaji
kara
yo
mou

mise
depato

oso-i

dou-shite
dou-itashimashite

 
itashi-masu
itasu
itashite

 
mi-masu
miru
mitte

 
aki-masu
aku
aite

 
shimari-masu
shimaru
shimatte


kana
から

もう

みせ
デパと

おそい

どうして
どういたしまして

 
いたします
いたす
いたして

 
みます
みる
みって

 
あきます
あく
あいて

 
しまります
しまう
しまって


kana
 
 
 


 

 

 
 

 
 
 
 

 
見ます
見る
見って

 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 


  • the word for ‘stores’ used in the recordings, ‘o-mise’, is ‘mise’ (store) with the honorific ‘o-‘.
  • ‘yo’ is a spoken exclamation mark, i.e., ‘!’; a verbose translation would be ‘I’m sure!’ or ‘that’s for sure!’.
  • ‘oso-i’ means both ‘slow’ and ‘late’, in the same way that ‘haya-i’ means both ‘fast’ and ‘early’.
  • ‘mitte’ means ‘see’; it can mean ‘to try’, as in ‘see if you can do this’, i.e., ‘try to do this’
  • ‘itasu’ is the humble version of ‘suru’, both meaning ‘to do’

Sample sentences

Eng: because it is already late.

lit: already late is because.


formal
mou oso-i desu kara.

もう おそい です から。

もうおそいですから。

casual
mou oso-i da kara.

もう おそい だから。

もうおそいだから。



Eng: try to say it, please

lit: say it, see it, please


formal
to itte, mitte kudasai.

と いって、いって ください。

と言って、見って下さい。


Comments

The following comments explain some of the grammar in more detail.

Adverbs

dou-shite – どうして

There are many ways to ask ‘why?’; in each case, the single word can be followed by ‘desu ka’ to make the request even more polite:


why?
formal
casual
more casual


 
naze (desu ka)?
dou-shite (desu ka)?
nande (desu ka)?


 
なぜ?
どうして?
なんで?


mou – もう

‘mou’ is the other side of the coin of the adverb ‘mada’, introduced in Lesson 3. We are going to repeat some of the material about ‘mada’ here, to make clear how it differs from ‘mou’. japanesemeow.com has a great page about this.

mada

indicates that there has not been any change in the state, for either positive or negative states:

positive state – still:


mada jouzu desu.
mada genki desu.


I’m still skilled (I was skilled before, and I’m skilled now).
I’m still healthy (I was healthy before, and I’m healthy now).


negative state – not yet:


mada jouzu ja nai.
mada genki ja nai.


I’m not skilled yet (I wasn’t skilled before, and I’m not skilled now).
I’m not healthy yet (I wasn’t healthy before, and I’m not healthy now).


mou

indicates that there has been a change in the state, for either positive or negative states:

positive state – already:


mou jouzu desu.
mou genki desu.


I’m already skilled (I was not skilled before, but I’m skilled now).
I’m already healthy (I was not healthy before, but I’m healthy now).


negative state – no longer:


mou jouzu ja nai.
mou genki ja nai.


I’m no longer skilled (I was skilled before, but I’m not skilled now).
I’m no longer healthy (I was healthy before, but I’m not healthy now).


Using the example of the recordings: