Japanese I-26

Vocabulary


English
days (counter)
two days
three days

day
a few (two-or-three)
a few days
a few people
a few kilometers

maybe, perhaps
so long, farewell

by (means of)
taxi
by taxi

friend
friend/s

work

to see/meet
masu (formal)
dict (casual)
-te (imperative)

to (do) work
masu (formal)
dict (casual)
-te (imperative)


romaji
-ka
futsu-ka
mik-ka

nichi
ni-san
ni-san nichi
ni-san nin
ni-san kiro

ta-bun
sayonara

de
takushi
takushi de

tomo
tomo-dachi

shi-goto

 
ai-masu
au
atte

 
shigoto wo shimasu
shigoto wo suru
shigoto wo shite


kana

ふつか
みっか

にち
にさん
にさん にち
にさん にん
にさん キロ

たぶん
さよなら


タクシ
タクシで

とも
ともだち

しごと

 
あいます
あう
あって

 
しごとを します
しごとを する
しごとを して


kana

2日、二日
3日、三日


二三
二三日
二三人
二三キロ

多分
 

 
 
 


友だち

仕事

 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 


  • ‘asoko’ means ‘there’ when we can point to it; ‘achira’ means ‘there’ when we cannot point to it.
  • ‘sayonara’ means ‘so long’ or ‘farewell’, i.e., it is a fairly definitive goodbye.

Sample sentences

Eng: I have a few friends in Ueno.

lit: Friends in Ueno? There are a few.


formal
ueno ni tomo-dachi ga nisan-nin i-masu.

うえのに ともだちが にさんにん います。

上のに友だちが二三人います。

casual
ueno ni tomo-dachi ga nisan-nin iru.

うえのに ともだちが にさんにん いる。

上のに友だちが二三人いる。


Comments

The following comments explain some of the grammar in more detail.

Adverbs

tabun – たぶん, 多分

‘ta-bun’ (多分) share the ‘bun’ kanji with ‘juu-bun’ (十分), and with many other words that have to do with proportions. 分 (bun) means ‘part’. It is also used to mean ‘minute’ because a minute is a ‘part’ of an hour.


English
enough, complete
maybe, perhaps
half
greater
50-50, equal parts


romaji
juu-bun
ta-bun
han-bun
dai-bun
go-bu-go-bu


kanji
十分
多分
半分
大分
五分五分


meaning
10 parts
multiple parts
half parts
big part
5 parts-5 parts


and many others.

Particles

de – で

In this lesson, ‘de’ is used to mean ‘by means of’, meaning a manner of transportation.


English
by taxi
by car
by bus


romaji
takushi de
kuruma de
basu de


kana
タクシで
くるまで
バスで


kanji
 
車で
 


ni vs. de

Both ‘de’ (lesson 6) and ‘ni’ (lesson 9) can mean ‘at’ a location. The difference is that:

  • ‘ni’ marks the location where something is or exists (e.g., i-masu, ari-masu, sundei-masu)
  • ‘de’: marks the location where something happens (e.g., tabe-masu, kai-masu, shigoto wo shi-masu)

English
I have friends there
the car is at the restaurant
my family lives in Tokyo

I work there
I buy in Tokyo
I eat at the restaurant


romaji
achira ni tomodachi ga i-masu
resutoran ni kuruma ga ari-masu
kazoku wa toukyou ni sundei-masu

achira de shigoto wo shi-masu
resutoran de tabe-masu
toukyou de kai-masu


Verbs

aimasu – あいます

‘ai-masu’ means ‘to see’ in the sense of ‘to meet’, i.e.g, ‘I’m going to see some friends’ or ‘I’m going to meet some friends’. The object of ‘ai-masu’ is marked with ‘ni’, not with ‘wo’:


English
I’m meeting Mr. Tanaka
I’ll see a few friends


romaji
tanaka san ni ai-masu
tomo-dachi ni ni-san nin ai-masu.