Japanese 1-19

Vocabulary


English
Washington
wine

where at?
there

who
who is he/she/that?

to start
for the first time
first time meeting
treat me favorably

the group of
we, us

Welcome!
very formal
formal

to enter
masu (formal)
dict (casual)
-te (imperative)

to live/reside
masu (formal)
dict (casual)
-te (imperative)


romaji
washinton
wain

doko ni?
soko

dare
dare desu ka?

hajimeru
hajimete
hajimemashite
yoroshiku

-tachi
watashi-tachi

 
irasshaimase
irasshai

 
hairi-masu
hairu
haitte

 
sumi-masu
sumu
sunde


kana
ワシントン
ワイン

どこに?
そこ

だれ
だれ ですか

はじめる
はじめて
はじめまして
よろしく

-たち
わたしたち

 
いらっしゃいませ
いらっしゃい

 
はいります
はいる
はいって

 
すみます
すむ
すんで


kanji
 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 
 
 

 
私たち

 
 
 

 
入ります
入る
入って

 
 
 
 


  • ‘irasshai’ is used to welcome people that have arrived from a trip, or arriving for the first time; ‘irasshaimase’ is used to welcome people to stores and restaurants.

Sample sentences

Eng: Where in America do you live?

lit: Do you live in America’s where?


formal
America no doko ni sunde i-masu ka?

アメリカの どこに すんでいますか。

アメリカのどこに住んでいますか。

casual
America no doko ni sunde iru?

アメリカの どこに すんでいる。

アメリカのどこに住んでいる。


Comments

The following comments explain some of the grammar in more detail.

Suffixes and Prefixes

-tachi – たち

‘-tachi’ is a suffix that means ‘the group of people with someone’. In some cases this has a direct translation to English, e.g., ‘watashi-tachi’, is the ‘the group of people with me’, or ‘we’; in some other cases it does not, e.g., ‘sensei-tachi’ is the group of people with sensei’, which is simply ‘the teacher and the group of people with him/her’.


singular
I/me (formal)
I/me (casual)

you (formal)
you (casual)

John


romaji
watashi
boku

anata
kimi

jon-san


plural
me & my group
me & my group

you & your group
you & your group

John & his group


romaji
watashi-tachi
boku-tachi

anata-tachi
kimi-tachi

jon-san-tachi


The ‘-tachi’ suffix can only be attached to personal pronouns.

Expressions

hajime-mashite / yoroshiku

These two greetings show up on the first encounter with a person. First comes ‘hajime mashite’ that means ‘This is the first time we meet’ because, indeed, it is only used the first time you meet; after this comes the exchange of names and/or affiliations, and finally, we close the introduction with a version of ‘yoroshiku’, which means ‘treat me well’, or ‘favor me with your friendship’. As usual, the longer the intro, the more respectful it is:

  • hajime mashite. tanaka desu. douzo yoroshiku onegai shimashita.
  • hajime mashite. tanaka desu. douzo yoroshiku onegai shimasu.
  • hajime mashite. tanaka desu. yoroshiku onegai shimasu.
  • hajime mashite. tanaka desu. douzo yoroshiku.
  • hajime mashite. tanaka desu. yoroshiku.
  • hajime mashite. tanaka desu. douzo.

We will translate ‘hajime mashite’ as ‘Glad to meet you’, and ‘yoroshiku’ as ‘how do you do’.

o-hairi kudasai

‘o-hairi’ is the honorific ‘o-‘ with a variation of the verb 入る (hairu, to enter). Thus, together with ‘kudasai’, which means ‘please, do for me’ we find that ‘o-hairi kudasai’ means ‘respected person, do me the favor of entering’. This can be made more polite preceding the whole thing with another ‘please’ in the form of ‘douzo’.

The polite invitation of the host should be followed by a polite acknowledgement that we are intruding. If we are entering someone’s house, this is done with ‘o-jama shimasu’, which means ‘(I’m sorry) I am a nuisance (entering your house)’; if we are not being invited to a house but instead we are entering, say, a conference room, or a doctor’s office, or something similar, then the response is ‘shitsurei shimasu’, which is ‘(I’m sorry) I’m being rude (entering your business)’.

Hence, the invitation to enter is:

  • douzo. o-hairi kudasai.
  • o-hairi kudasai.
  • douzo.

and the acknowledgement is

  • doumo arigatou gozai-masu. [o-jama / shitsurei] shimasu.
  • arigatou gozai-masu. [o-jama / shitsurei] shimasu.
  • doumo arigatou. [o-jama / shitsurei] shimasu.
  • arigatou. [o-jama / shitsurei] shimasu.
  • doumo. [o-jama / shitsurei] shimasu.
  • [o-jama / shitsurei] shimasu.