Japanese I-24

Vocabulary


English
East
imperial capital
Tokyo (East capital)
Yokohama
Osaka

is that so?
that’s so.

towards
to go
to go towards
road, route
road to go towards

right
left

this direction
that direction
that dir. over there
which direction?

this
that
that over there
which one?

from
And then, From that


romaji
higashi
kyou
toukyou
yokohama
oosaka

sou desu ka?
sou desu.

he
iku
he iku
michi
he-iku-michi

migi
hidari

kochira
sochira
achira
dochira?

kore
sore
are
dore?

kara
sore-kara


kana
ひがし
きょう
とうきょう
よこはま
おおさか

そう ですか。
そう です。

X へ
いく
X へ いく
みち
X へ いく みち

みぎ
ひだり

こちら
そちら
あちら
どちら?

これ
それ
あれ
どれ?

から
それから


kana


東京
 
大さか

そうですか。
そうです。

 
行く
Xへ行く

Xへ行く道


 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 

 
 


Sample sentences

Eng: which is the road to Tokyo?
It’s in that direction.

lit: the road-towards Tokyo? Which is it?
It is over there.


formal
toukyou he-iku-michi wa dochira desu ka?
achira desu.

とうきょう へいくみちは どちら ですか。
あちら です。

東京へ行く道はどちらですか。
あちらです。

casual
toukyo he-iku-michi wa dore?
are da.

とうきょう へいくみちは どれ?
あれだ。

東京へ行く道はどれ?
あれだ。



Eng: And then take a right, please.

lit: From there go towards the right, please.


formal
sore-kara migi he itte kudasai.

それから みぎへ いって ください。

それから右へ行って下さい。


Comments

The following comments explain some of the grammar in more detail.

Particles

from – から

‘kara'(から) means ‘from’; it can be from a point in time, from a location, etc.


English
from 1:00 o’clock
from Tokyo
from the heart


romaji
ichi ji kara
toukyou kara
kokoro kara


kana
いちじから
とうきょうから
こころから


かんじ
一時から
東京から
心から


In English, instead of saying ‘From the heart’ we say ‘sincerely’.

Pronouns

kore, sore – これ, それ

lesson 4 shows the ‘koko/soko/asoko/doko’ group as an example of a ‘ko-so-a-do’ family that meant ‘here/there/way over there/where?’.

This lesson introduces the ‘kore/sore/are/dore’ group which means ‘this/that/that over there/which?’. We use these words when we want to refer to something without mentioning what this something is, e.g., the context must have already made clear what we are talking about, maybe because it was mentioned before, or because we are pointing to it:


English
This is expensive.
What’s that?
It’s over there.
Which is it?


romaji
kore wa taka-i.
nani sore?
are desu.
dore desu ka?


kana
これは たかい。
なに それ。
あれ です。
どれ ですか。


Thus, we can say ‘kore wa taka-i’, but we cannot say ‘kore kuruma wa taka-i’. For the later case, we’d have to use the group ‘kono/sono/ano/dono?’, i.e., we would ask ‘kono kuruma wa taka-i’.

achira – あちら

This lesson also introduces another ‘ko-so-a-do’ family: ‘kochira/sochira/achira/dochira’ which means ‘this way/that way/that way over there/which way?’


English
It is that way.
That way over there is fast.
Which way is it?


romaji
sochira desu.
achira wa haya-i.
kochira desu ka?


kana
そちら です。
あちらは はやい。
こちら ですか。


Expressions

sore-kara – それから

‘sore’ means ‘that’. It is used in many conjunctions; we already saw ‘sore-tomo’ in lesson 9.


romaji
sore-tomo
sore-kara
sore-demo
sore-de

sore-hodo
sore-dewa/sore-ja
sore-ni


meaning
that-together with
that-from
that-however
that-and then

that-extent
that-then…
that-in addition to


English
Or…
And then…
Nevertheless, Even so…
And…, Because of that…

To that extent
Well, then…
Besides…


The literal translation of ‘sore-kara’ would be ‘From that…’, but in English we would say ‘After that…’, or ‘And then…’.

As a note, ‘sore-dewa’ and ‘sore-ja’ mean the same as ‘dewa’ and ‘ja’, so they are interchangable. Since we can say ‘good-bye’ with

[dewa/ja] mata ne

then we can also say it with

sore-[dewa/ja] mata ne